Stomach cancer is a disease in which cancer cells grow in the stomach. There are 5 layers of tissue in the stomach. Types of cancer include:
- Adenocarcinoma—tumors of the mucosa (the innermost layer), which make up over 90% of stomach cancers
- Lymphoma—a cancer of the immune system, which is sometimes found in the stomach wall
- Gastric stomal tumors—tumors of the stomach wall
- Carcinoid tumors—tumors of the hormone-producing cells of the stomach
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Cancer occurs when cells in the body divide without control or order. Eventually these uncontrolled cells form a growth or tumor. The term cancer refers to malignant growths. These growths can invade nearby tissues including the lymph nodes. Cancer that has invaded the lymph nodes can then spread to other parts of the body.
It is not clear exactly what causes these problems in the cells, but is probably a combination of genetics and environment.
Stomach cancer is more common in men, and in people aged 50 years and older. Other factors that may increase your chances of stomach cancer:
- Ethnicity and geography, more common in:
- Hispanics and African Americans than Caucasians
- People from Japan, Korea, parts of Eastern Europe, and Latin America
- Helicobacter pylori infection
- High intake of smoked, salted, pickled food and meat, high starch/low fiber foods
- Low intake of certain vegetables, such as garlic scallions, onions, chives, leeks
- Alcohol use disorder
- Previous stomach surgery
- Pernicious anemia
- Ménétrier disease (a disease that causes large folds in the stomach lining)
- Barrett esophagus
- Blood type A
- Familial cancer syndromess—hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer and familial adenomatous polyposis
- Family history of stomach cancer
- Stomach polyps
In some people, stomach cancer may have no symptoms. In those that have them, stomach cancer may cause:
- Indigestion, heartburn
- Abdominal pain or vague abdominal discomfort
- Nausea and vomiting
- Diarrhea or constipation
- Stomach bloating or sense of fullness after eating
- Loss of appetite
- Weakness, fatigue
- Bleeding in vomit or stool
- Stool that has turned black or tarry
- Unintended weight loss
- Fluid swelling in abdomen
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Tests may include:
- Blood tests
- Fecal occult blood test—to test for blood in the stool
- Biopsy—a tissue sample that can be examined under a microscope
Imaging tests to evaluate the stomach and surrounding structures may include:
- Upper GI series
- Chest x-ray
- Upper GI endoscopy
- CT scan
- PET scan
The physical exam, combined with all of your test results, will help to determine the type and stage of cancer you have. Staging is used to guide your treatment plan. Like other cancers, stomach cancer is staged from I to IV. Stage I is a very localized cancer, while stage IV indicates a spread to other parts of the body.
Cancer treatment varies depending on the stage and type of cancer. Stomach cancer is most often detected in the later stages. A combination of therapies may be more effective. For example, surgery may be used in conjunction with chemo- or radiation therapy.
Treatment options for stomach cancer include:
To help reduce your chances of stomach cancer:
- Avoid diets high in salted, pickled, and smoked foods.
- Eat at least 5 servings of fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grain foods a day.
- Limit red meat intake.
- If you smoke, talk to your doctor about how to quit.
- Avoid or drink alcohol only in moderation. This means 2 drinks per day for men and 1 drink per day for women.