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Celiac Disease

Celiac Disease


Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease of the digestive tract. In celiac disease, eating food with gluten damages little bulges in the small intestine. These bulges, called villi, absorb nutrients from foods. The condition affects the absorption of all nutrients. People with untreated celiac disease often become malnourished.

Cross Section of Small Intestine
small intestine villi
Inner circle demonstrates protrusions affected by celiac disease.
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.


Celiac disease is caused by a response to eating foods with gluten. Doctors do not fully understand why the response happens in some people and not others. There is most likely a genetic factor. Those with specific genes develop the disease after exposure to gluten.

Risk Factors

Risk factors that increase your chance of having celiac disease include:

  • Family members with celiac disease
  • History of another autoimmune disease, such as:
    • Type 1 diabetes
    • Autoimmune thyroid disease
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus
    • Down syndrome
  • Dermatitis herpetiformis—A skin condition associated with celiac disease
  • Rheumatoid arthritis


Symptoms vary and may start in childhood or adulthood. Children often have different symptoms than adults. Symptoms may not develop if a large section of the intestine is undamaged. Malnutrition may produce the first signs of the condition, which are often the most serious.

Signs and symptoms may include:


You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.

Your body tissues and fluids may be tested. This can be done with:

  • Blood tests
  • Bowel biopsy

Images may be taken of your body intestines. This can be done with endoscopy.


A life-long, gluten-free diet is the only treatment for celiac disease. It is very effective. Symptoms usually go away within days of starting the diet. However, healing of the villi may take months or years. Additional intake of gluten can damage the intestines, even if you have no symptoms. Delayed growth and tooth discoloration may be permanent. Nutritional supplements, given through a vein, may be needed if the intestinal damage does not heal. Since gluten is added to many foods, the diet can be complicated and often frustrating. Some find support groups helpful.


There are no guidelines for preventing celiac disease because the cause is not understood. However, if you have a child at increased risk for celiac disease, their doctor may advise you on the best time to introduce gluten products.

If celiac disease runs in your family, ask your doctor about a screening test. If you or your child has celiac disease the earlier you start the gluten-free diet, the less damage there will be to the intestine.


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