A bunion is a thickened lump at the base of the big toe. It is the result of the movement of the base of the big toe away from the smaller toes. At the same time, the top of the big toe moves toward the smaller toes. This instability creates metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint inflammation and bursitis at the base of the big toe.
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
The exact cause of bunions is unknown, but it is likely a combination of genetics and environmental factors.
Bunions are more common in women than in men. Other factors that may increase your chance of getting a bunion include:
- Structural deformities in the foot, which may be related to genetics
- Family history of foot disorders
- Certain conditions, such as cerebral palsy , multiple sclerosis , or Marfan syndrome
- Flat feet , which transfers too much weight to the MTP joint
- Activities that put undue stress on the foot, such as ballet
- High-heel shoes
- Poorly fitting, narrow shows
Bunions may cause:
- Tip of the big toe that turns in toward the other toes and may overlap the second or third toe
- Firm bump on the outside edge of the foot or at the base of the big toe
- Restricted or painful motion of the big toe
- Foot pain and stiffness
- Fluid-filled cyst between the skin and the bony lump
You should seek medical attention if you have diabetes and you are having problems with your feet.
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A foot exam will be done. An x-ray of your foot will be used to diagnose the bunion. It will also show the severity and amount of damage.
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Options include:
To help reduce your chance of getting a bunion, take these steps:
- Wear wide toed shoes and comfortable footwear that do not pinch the toes.
- Prevent a minor bunion from worsening with bunion pads and proper shoes.