An ankle fracture is a break of a bone in the ankle joint. The joint is made up of 3 bones:
- Tibia (shin bone)—The main bone of the lower leg that runs along the inside of the leg
- Fibula—The smaller bone of the lower leg that runs along the outside of the leg
- Talus—The bone that provides the connection between the leg and the foot, and is less often fractured than the others
The ankle joint is supported by 3 groups of ligaments. An injury that causes a fracture may also damage one or more of these ligaments.
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An ankle fracture can occur when the joint is forced beyond its normal range of motion. It can also be caused by a direct blow to the bone itself. Any form of ankle trauma may cause injury, including:
Factors that increase your chances of getting an ankle fracture include:
- Decreased muscle mass
- Osteoporosis —common in women after menopause and in older, less active people
- Any condition that increases the risk of falls, such as poor muscle control or poor balance
- Participation in certain sports, such as basketball, football, soccer, and skiing
- Being overweight
- Immediate pain—can be severe, but sometimes with fibula injuries, is surprisingly minor
- Bruising around the injured area
- Tenderness when touching the injured bone in the ankle area
- Inability to put weight on the injured foot without pain, although some people are able to walk with minor fractures
You will be asked about your symptoms, physical activity, and how the injury occurred. An examination of the injured area will be done.
Images may be taken of your ankle. This can be done with x-rays. If additional details are needed, other images may be done, such as a CT scan or an MRI scan.
Treatment will depend on the severity of the injury. Treatment includes:
- Putting the pieces of the bone back into position, which may require anesthesia and/or surgery
- Holding the pieces together while the bone heals itself
Devices that may be used to hold the bone in place while it heals include:
- A cast—may be used with or without surgery
- A metal plate with screws—requires surgery
- Screws alone—requires surgery
- A rod down the middle of the bone—requires surgery
Pain medication may be prescribed. More x-rays will be ordered while the bone heals to ensure that the bones have not shifted position.
To help prevent ankle fractures:
- Do not put yourself at risk for trauma to the ankle.
- Do weight-bearing exercises to build strong bones.
- Build strong muscles to prevent falls and to stay active and agile.